Transient idiopathic dystonia of infancy

Transient Idiopathic Dystonia in Infancy: A Clinical Case and Video Description View the entire article with references and supplemental information on the Wiley Online Library. Note: Reference links embedded in the article below will also take you to the article on the Wiley Online Library Transient Idiopathic Dystonia in Infancy: A Clinical Case and Video Description. Mov Disord Clin Pract. 2016 Jan 18;3 (3):318-319. doi: 10.1002/mdc3.12293. eCollection May-Jun 2016

Transient idiopathic dystonia of infancy (TIDI) Primary genetic dystonia; Progressive dystonia resulting from an underlying metabolic/neurodegenerative etiology; What is the core feature of this condition? Onset after 1 year of age; Abnormal neuropsychomotor development; Symptoms fluctuation that disappears when the child does voluntary movement Distinction between neurological, neuromuscular and orthopaedic pathology is difficult, particularly at the onset of clinical manifestations. The cases presented are similar to those previously reported by Willemse and Deonna, classified as transient idiopathic dystonia of childhood METHODS: Retrospective review and characterization of clinical cases seen in paediatric neurology consultation, diagnosed with transient idiopathic dystonia, between February 2001 and June 2009, using clinical files complemented with photographic records and updated information through the physician Dystonia in childhood is a movement disorder that causes involuntary muscle contractions. These muscle contractions result in twisting, repetitive movements and abnormal postures. The movements and postures may be chronic or occur in episodes. Symptoms can vary with body position, specific tasks, emotions, and state of consciousness

Although dystonic reactions have been reported in cocaine users, infantile dystonia following intrauterine exposure has not. We describe 4 infants testing positive for cocaine metabolite at birth with subsequent transient dystonic reactions, beginning at 3 hours to 3 months of age and persisting for several months Dystonia can occur at any age, but genetic and idiopathic dystonia are often divided as either early, or childhood onset, versus adult onset. Early onset dystonia often begins with symptoms in the limbs and may progress to involve other regions. Some symptoms tend to occur after periods of exertion and/or fluctuate over the course of the day The term idiopathic hypotonia refers to the medical diagnosis assigned to children in infancy. The diagnosis is based on clinical signs such as inappropriate head lag, astasis, and slip-through and, at the time of the diagnosis, the hypotonia is not attributed to or associated with any other condition

Electroencephalogram (EEG) or video-EEG monitoring should be considered if the history suggests seizure, especially for paroxysmal conditions such as transient idiopathic dystonia of infancy, benign paroxysmal torticollis of infancy, and acquired dystonias Dopa-responsive dystonia (Segawa syndrome, dystonia-parkinsonism with diurnal fluctuation) needs to be considered in any infant or child with unknown diagnosis and normal MRI. It is usually misdiagnosed as spastic diplegic or quadriplegic cerebral palsy, intractable epilepsy, or hereditary spastic paraplegia Age of onset is broken down into infancy (birth to 2 years), childhood (3-12 years), adolescence (13-20), early adulthood (21-40), and late adulthood (greater than 40 years). Dystonia that develops during infancy or childhood is more likely to have a known cause and to progress to become widespread Marsden CD, Harrison MJG, Bundley S. Natural history of idiopathic torsion dystonia. Adv Neurol 1976;14:177-87. [11] Willemese J. Benign idiopathic torsion dystonia with onset in the first year of life. Dev Med Child Neurol 1986;28:355-63. [12] Deonna TW, Ziegler AL, Nielsen J. Transient idiopathic dys- tonia of infancy

Transient Idiopathic Dystonia in Infancy: A Clinical Case

  1. ation
  2. Idiopathic dystonia with onset in the first year of life has been described as a transient movement disorder, in contrast to other forms of idiopathic dystonia We report on a girl who showed, from her 5th month, episodes of dystonic postures of her neck and arm, which lasted for seconds and occurred several times a day
  3. Transient idiopathic dystonia of infancy History onset usually before 6 months of age, typical posturing of an upper limb with forearm pronation and wrist hyperflexion, usually resolved by 2 years of age, development normal, [ 103 ] [ 104 ] some may be permanent with attenuation during sleep, others posturing usually observed during relaxation.

Transient idiopathic dystonia in infancy - Calado - 2011

Intrauterine cocaine exposure has been associated with multiple transient and permanent neurologic sequelae. Although dystonic reactions have been reported in cocaine users, infantile dystonia following intrauterine exposure has not. We describe 4 infants testing positive for cocaine metabolite at birth with subsequent transient dystonic reactions, beginning at 3 hours to 3 months of age and. Idiopathic dystonia with onset in the first year of life has been described as a transient movement disorder, in contrast to other forms of idiopathic dystonia. We report on a girl who showed, from her 5th month, episodes of dystonic postures of her neck and arm, which lasted for seconds and occurred several times a day Cervical dystonia typically begins in middle age, and rarely begins in adolescence and young adulthood. The cause of cervical dystonia is unknown, although a genetic susceptibility is thought to underlie some cases. If cervical dystonia begins in infancy or early childhood, secondary causes should be investigated young children also may experience transient or develop-mental conditions with dystonic movements and postures such as benign paroxysmal torticollis and benign idiopathic dystonia of infancy. Although these movements suggest a transient neuronal dysfunction, these conditions typically self-resolve with no long-term dystonic sequelae [22, 23] Dopa sensitive dystonia Transient focal dystonia of infancy May have unusual posture even prior to starting to walk. Often have dystonic posture at rest. May have variation: diurnal, tiredness, intercurrent illness. May have impaired speech. May masquerade as 'cerebral palsy' without risk factors for CP or as idiopathic toe walkin

Dystonia is a movement disorder in which your muscles contract involuntarily, causing repetitive or twisting movements. The condition can affect one part of your body (focal dystonia), two or more adjacent parts (segmental dystonia) or all parts of your body (general dystonia). The muscle spasms can range from mild to severe Dystonia is a disorder of sensorimotor integration, involving dysfunction within the basal ganglia, cortex, cerebellum, or their inter-connections as part of the sensorimotor network. Some forms of dystonia are also characterized by maladaptive or exaggerated plasticity. Development of the neuronal processes underlying sensorimotor integration is incompletely understood but involves activity. Idiopathic or primary dystonia is often inherited from a parent. Some carriers of the disorder may never develop a dystonia themselves. And the symptoms may vary widely among members of the same.

Paroxysmal dyskinesias may be inherited or acquired by secondary causes. Several genes have been associated with paroxysmal dyskinesias, including PRRT2, SLC2A1 and PNKD. Paroxysmal dyskinesias may be secondary to multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, metabolic disorders, physical trauma, cerebrovascular disease, and miscellaneous conditions including supranuclear palsy and AIDS Deonna TW, Ziegler AL, Nielsen J. Transient idiopathic dystonia in infancy. Neuropediatrics. 1991;22:220-4. CAS PubMed Article Google Scholar 24. van Egmond ME, Lugtenberg CHA, Brouwer OF, Contarino MF, Fung VSC, Heiner-Fokkema MR, et al. A post hoc study on gene panel analysis for the diagnosis of dystonia Idiopathic Torsion Dystonia (ITD), or Oppenheim's dystonia, is an autosomal dominant condition of variable penetrance seen most commonly in juvenile patients of Ashkenazi Jewish descent. Commonly, onset begins in foot or arm before progressing to other limbs, head, and neck The age of onset is typically between 5 and 10 months, and the condition gradually resolves between 3 months and 5 years without developmental or neurological abnormalities. The etiology and pathophysiology of transient dystonia of infancy are unclear. j. Benign myoclonus of early infancy (BMEI

Transient idiopathic dystonia in infancy

Transient dystonic toe-walking: differentiation from cerebral palsy and a rare explanation for some unexplained cases of idiopathic toe-walking - Volume 48 Issue Based on the severity of truncal and limb dystonia during attacks, a diagnosis of transient paroxysmal dystonia of infancy was made. The child was given diphenhydramine hydrochloride 12.5 mg three times per day, leading to a complete resolution of symptoms within 5 weeks. The child was administered diphenhydramine for a total of 3 months

Video: Pediatric Dystonia Dystonia Medical Research Foundatio

Transient dystonia of infancy, a result of intrauterine

  1. Dystonia is a hyperkinetic movement disorder characterised by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal movements, postures or both. Dystonia is a challenging condition to diagnose and treat. Dystonia is often under-recognised in children, particularly in cerebral palsy, and frequently coexists with spasticity. This guide aims to simplify the approach to diagnosis.
  2. Definition of dystonia. Oppenheim (1911) dystonia musculorum. deformans, a syndrome in children with twisted. posture, muscle spasms, bizarre walking. progression of symtom, leading to sustained fixed. postural deformity. Flatau Sterling (1911) inherited disease. progressive torsion spasm. Derek Denny-Brown (1964) a fixed or relatively
  3. Dystonia •Involuntary muscle spasms leading to abnormal posturing of limbs and writhing movements (athetosis)- tremor is part of dystonia •Isolated dystonia: without any structural damage often inherited ( called primary or idiopathic in the old classification) •Combined dystonia: Due to variety of environmental or heredodegenerative cause
  4. Dystonia and chorea are uncommon abnormal movements which can be seen in a wide array of disorders. One quarter of dystonias and essentially all choreas are symptomatic or secondary, the underlying cause being an identifiable neurodegenerative disorder, hereditary metabolic defect, or acquired systemic medical disorder. Dystonia and chorea associated with neurodegenerative or heritable.
  5. Common types of Dystonia Benign paroxysmal torticollis in infancy Dopa responsive dystonia Idiopathic torsion dystonia (Oppenheim's dystonia) Transient idiopathic dystonia of Infancy Secondary dystonia: 1.Structural brain damage :Hemidystonia 2. Metabolic dystonia: Glutaric aciduria Wilson's disease, Lesch Nyan syndrome Homocystinuria.
  6. Adult torticollis, also referred to as cervical dystonia or spasmodic torticollis, is a condition in which the muscles that control the neck are locked into a sustained involuntary contraction. These contractures can commonly cause twisting, repetitive movements, or abnormal posturing of the neck.Depending on the severity, it can be a very painful condition that may lead to a great deal of.

Dystonias Fact Sheet National Institute of Neurological

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  2. For example, transient idiopathic dystonia (irregular flexing of the arm most commonly) often occurs in prematurely born babies. Infants with transient dystonia have movement issues very similar to infants with CP, but transient dystonia usually resolves by age one
  3. Dystonia is a neurological hyperkinetic movement disorder syndrome in which sustained or repetitive muscle contractions result in twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal fixed postures. The movements may resemble a tremor.Dystonia is often intensified or exacerbated by physical activity, and symptoms may progress into adjacent muscles
  4. The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Diagnostic Manual's goal is to assist clinicians who look after people with epilepsy to diagnose the epilepsy syndrome and (if possible) the etiology of the epilepsy. Arriving at the correct epilepsy syndrome and/or etiology allows better decision-making about treatment and improves patient care
  5. utes,1,2 similar to the older-onset.

Onset of idiopathic cervical dystonia typically occurs when patients are aged 30-50 years (average age of onset, 40 y). Onset of posttraumatic cervical dystonia is within days of injury for the acute form and 3-12 months after injury for the delayed form. Congenital muscular torticollis occurs in less than 0.4% of newborns Deonna TW, Ziegler AL, Nielsen J. Transient idiopathic dystonia in infancy. Neuropediatrics. 1991 Nov;22(4):220-4. Abstract external link opens in a new window. 105. Deonna T, Martin D. Benign paroxysmal torticollis in infancy. Arch Dis Child. 1981 Dec;56(12):956-9..

Outcomes of Infants with Idiopathic Hypotonia : Pediatric

If cervical dystonia begins in infancy or early childhood, secondary causes should be investigated. Cervical dystonia affects women approximately twice as often as men. It is the most common form of focal dystonia in an office setting. Cervical dystonia may affect individuals of any age, but typically develops in people between 40 and 60 years. Inherited condition causing movement disorders Etiology Age at onset Clinical signs EEG and Imaging Lab and genetics Glutaric aciduria Type 1 5-10 months Acute encephalopathy, dystonia, motor impairment, macrocephaly CT/MRI: frontotemporal atrophy Organic acid in urine, enzyme assay Glucose transporter 1 deficiency Infancy Seizures. Developmental and benign movement disorders are a group of movement disorders with onset in the neonatal period, infancy, or childhood. They are characterized by the absence of associated neurological manifestations and by their favorable outcome, although developmental abnormalities can be occasionally observed. Knowledge of the clinical, neurophysiological, and pathogenetic aspects of these.

Transient Idiopathic Isolated Unilateral Hypoglossal Nerve

Evaluation of infantile dystonia - Diagnosis Approach

ASSESSMENT OF THE PATIENT WITH ISOLATED OR COMBINED DYSTONIA: AN UPDATE ON DYSTONIA SYNDROMES. By Crishtian Omar Gutiérrez Sánchez. Movement disorders and inborn errors of metabolism in adults: A diagnostic approach. By Farzad Fatehi. Marsdens Book of Movement Disorders booksmedicos Idiopathic varix Idiopathic esophageal varices Idiopathic varicoce... le Idiopathic varicose veins Idiopathic varicocele-associated oligoasthenospermia Idiopathic varix can be treated with vegetable diet. Very important vegetables are : Ash gourd Brinjal Cluster beans Snake gourd Pumpkin Ivy gourd Drumstick Ridge gourd Coconut Lemon peel Ladies finger Plantain Online Consultation available Nov 27, 2006 · Therefore, DBS may be helpful in selected EOTD patients with severe generalized dystonia. Prognosis. Only few studies on the natural history of. Myoclonus is not common. Its lifetime prevalence compares with that of dystonia or of cauda equina lesions. The lifetime prevalence of myoclonus in Minnesota, USA, excluding transient myoclonus, was 8.6 per 100 000 population. The prevalence increases after the age of 50. For example, among 85-year-olds, it may be as high as 40 per 100 000 Three members of a family with alcohol-responsive, myoclonus-dystonia (DYT11) with a mutation in the epsilon-sarcoglycan (SGCE) gene on chromosome 7q (Kinugawa et al 2009; Ritz et al 2009). All 3 demonstrate the combination of myoclonus and dystonia, the latter chiefly manifested by dystonic writer's cramp

Idiopathic achalasia Idiopathic esophageal achalasia Idiopathic achalasia can be treated with vegetable diet. Very important vegetables are : Ash gourd Brinjal Cluster beans Snake gourd Pumpkin.. Generalized myoclonic jerks frequently occur spontaneously and can be induced by a sudden loud sound (stimulus-sensitive myoclonus). He has difficulty arising from his chair, turns en bloc, has absent arm swing, and has a slow, unsteady, broad-based gait associated with dystonic posturing of his wrists. (Contributed by Dr. Joseph Jankovic. Idiopathic drop attacks Vertebrobasilar ischaemia Focal motor seizures Transient vestibular symptoms: peripheral vestibular disease, epilepsy Visual symptoms: migraine, transient ischaemic attack, epilepsy Benign myoclonus of infancy Paroxysmal dystonia Sandifers syndrome/GOR Benign paroxysmal torticolli Summary. The control of posture, stance and motion is highly demanding of the peripheral and central nervous system of a creature, especially if this creature is a relatively fast-moving bipedal one with a high center of gravity. With a sustained cerebral hypoxia/anoxia, a tonic phase with or without myoclonia, that is convulsive syncope, appears Movement Disorders in Childhood, Second Edition, provides the most up-to-date information on the diseases and disorders that affect motor control, an important area of specialization within child neurology. Over the past several decades, advances in genetics, neuroimaging, neurophysiology, and other areas of neuroscience have provided new understanding of the underlying etiologies and.

Torsion dystonia is quite often combined with myoclonus (as with tremor), but this combination is especially characteristic of symptomatic myoclonic dystonia (Wilson-Konovalov disease, post-encephalitic parkinsonism, lysosomal accumulation diseases, rejected postoxic dystonia, etc.) and the hereditary dystonia-myoclonus syndrome Newborns. Hypoglycemia is a common problem with an increasing incidence in critically ill or extremely low birthweight infants. Its potential association with brain damage and neurodevelopment delay make it an important topic. If not due to maternal hyperglycemia, in most cases it is multifactorial, transient and easily supported.In a minority of cases, hypoglycemia turns out to be due to. Dystonia is movement disorder with many diverse underlying etiologies. Some of those etiologies manifest at specific stages of development or at specific ages. Others may present early in life and evolve as the individual develops. The appearance of symptoms during a time of nervous system development poses special challenges to the neurologist. Normal functions change appearance, dysfunction. 유아의 일시적 특발성 긴장 이상증 : 임상 사례 및 비디오 설명 - https://www.movementdisorders.org/MD.. Excessive crying of infant (baby) R6812: Fussy infant (baby) R6813: Apparent life threatening event in infant (ALTE) Genetic torsion dystonia: G242: Idiopathic nonfamilial dystonia: G243: Spasmodic torticollis: G244: Idiopathic orofacial dystonia: G245: Transient paralysis: R29810: Facial weakness : PDX Collection 1127: R301: Vesical.


Deonna TW, Ziegler AL, Nielsen J. Transient idiopathic dystonia in infancy. Neuropediatrics. 1991 Nov;22(4):220-4. Resumo external link opens in a new window. 105. Deonna T, Martin D. Benign paroxysmal torticollis in infancy. Arch Dis Child. 1981 Dec;56(12):956-9.. Dystonia is a neurological condition characterized by abnormal involuntary movements or postures owing to sustained or intermittent muscle contractions. Dystonia can be the manifesting. Dystonia consists of repetitive, patterned, twisting, and sustained movements that may be either slow or rapid. Dystonic states are classified as primary, secondary, or psychogenic depending upon the cause. By definition, primary dystonia (formerly known as dystonia musculorum deformans or idiopathic torsion dystonia) is associated with no other neurologic impairment, such as intellectual. Dystonia is a rare movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive movements, postures, or both. 1 Nowadays, genetic testing gains an increasing awareness and importance to patients and doctors alike. Patients with an age at onset (AAO) in childhood and/or a positive family history often have a genetic cause, but also patients. Dystonia types. Dystonia can affect only one muscle or a group of muscles. There are five main types of dystonia: Focal dystonia - where a single region, such as the hand or eyes, is affected. Cervical dystonia, blepharospasm (abnormal twitch of the eyelid), laryngeal dystonia and writer's cramp are all examples of focal dystonia

Evaluation of infantile dystonia - Differential diagnosis

F95.0 Transient Tic Disorder New code added 10/1/18 F98.3 Pica of infancy and childhood G24.4 Idiopathic orofacial dystonia G25.1 Drug-induced tremor G25.70 Drug-induced movement disorder, unspecified G25.71 Medication-induced acute akathisia G25.9 Extrapyramidal and movement disorder, unspecified. Epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures Idiopathic Stabbing Headache Migraine, including migraine without aura, migraine with aura (including typical visual aura, Dystonia-Parkinsonism Glutaric Aciduria Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia Inherited Disorders of Neurotransmission Juvenile Parkinsonis Transient global amnesia: not seizures, probably 2° to transient ischemia of Idiopathic or secondary. Tx: L-dopa, anticholinergics. Tardive dyskinesia: Stereotyped orolingual movement or dystonia. Caused by phenothiazines ↓ dopamine. Prevent/Tx: Reserpine, anticholinergics (trihexyphenydil/Artane, benadryl.) Phenothiazines (& Reglan. Unknown. One case of pericarditis in infancy. One case of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) (supplement). A few with colitis (one case was mild, and undifferenciated). Findings include ulcers in the oropharynx, terminal ileum or colon. One case with nausea, vomiting, weight loss. Inflammation on biopsy of the gastrointestinal tract

Dystonia 1, Torsion, Autosomal Dominant, DYT1; Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) Albanese A, Barnes MP, Bhatia KP, et al; A systematic review on the diagnosis and treatment of primary (idiopathic) dystonia and dystonia plus syndromes: report of an EFNS/MDS-ES Task Force. Eur J Neurol. 2006 May13(5):433-44 Seizures and movement disorders (MDs) are distinct neurological conditions presenting with abnormal movements. Despite sharing an overlap in phenomenology, these movements have different origins. In order to explore the overlaps and the narrow boundaries between these two conditions, we performed a review of the literature to explore the risk of seizures in MDs Huntington's disease in childhood usually presents with cognitive and behavioral changes, myoclonus, dystonia, and parkinsonian features rather than chorea, Choreiform cerebral palsy can mimic benign hereditary chorea, an autosomal dominant disorder that may begin in infancy or early childhood Number: 0208. Policy. Aetna considers unilateral or bilateral deep brain stimulators (e.g., stimulation of the ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus, globus pallidus, and subthalamic nucleus) medically necessary durable medical equipment (DME) for the treatment of intractable tremors as a consequence of Parkinson's disease or essential tremor when all of the following criteria are met The main types of idiopathic paroxysmal dyskinesias • Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesias (PKC/PKD) • Paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia (PED) • Paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesias (PDC/PNKD) • Hypnogenic paroxysmal dyskinesia (HPD) Other (in children often transient) • Benign Paroxysmal Torticollis of infancy • Shuddering attack

Dystonia - NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders

F95.0 Transient Tic Disorder F95.1 Chronic Motor or Vocal Tic Disorder F98.29 Other Feeding Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood F98.3 Pica of Infancy and Childhood G24.4 Idiopathic Orofacial Dystonia G25.1 Drug-Induced Tremor G25.70 Drug-Induced Movement Disorder, Unspecified. *Dystonia facts medically edited by: Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD. Dystonia is a disorder of muscle control; it can cause slow repetitive movements, abnormal postures and/or tremors of the musculature that are uncontrollable by the patient. The symptoms of dystonia may include foot cramps, turning or dragging of the foot, worsening of handwriting, neck movements, rapid eye blinking or. The name Chronic Idiopathic Myelofibrosis was last used in the 2001 WHO classification, the disorder now referred to as Primary Myelofibrosis is extremely rare and there have been <50 cases reported till date.3 Paediatric myelofibrosis is more commonly seen in patients under the age of 3 and a female predominance is seen in the ratio of 2:1 as compared to males Two related girls had the onset of unilateral leg dystonia in the neonatal period and at 13 months, respectively. The dystonic signs subsided with motor development and resolved completely in one of the girls by the age of 5 years. There was no response to L-dopa. From 2-3 years of age segmental myoclonus with a shoulder girdle distribution appeared Functional Seizures commonly referred to as Non-epileptic seizures (NES) is a descriptive term for a diverse group of disorders which refers to paroxysmal events that can be mistaken for epilepsy, but are not due to an epileptic disorder.There are two sub-categories of Functional Seizures (NES)

Common Movement Disorders in Children: Diagnosis

Autosomal dominant torsion dystonia with onset in infancy

Editor—Torsion dystonia is a movement disorder characterised by sustained involuntary muscle contractions, frequently causing twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures.1 Primary torsion dystonia (PTD) occurs either in a familial or sporadic pattern with dystonia as the sole phenotypic manifestation with the exception that tremor can be present as well Differentiating Epileptic Seizures From Other Spells. November 1, 2006. Donald Olson, MD. It can be difficult to determine whether unusual, paroxysmal behavior represents a seizure or a nonepileptic event. Patients with convulsive, clonic movements may, in fact, be experiencing psychogenic events

Movement Disorders Babcock - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. movement disorde Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), sometimes called benign intracranial hypertension (BIH) or pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) is a neurological disorder that is characterized by increased intracranial pressure (ICP), in the absence of a tumor or other diseases affecting the brain or its lining Torticollis is a problem involving the muscles of the neck that causes the head to tilt down. The term comes from two Latin words: tortus, which means twisted, and collum, which means neck. What is Ataxia? Quick Links Ataxia is a rare neurological disease. It is progressive - affecting a person's ability to walk, talk, and use fine motor skills. What is Ataxia? Ataxia is a degenerative disease of the nervous system. Many symptoms of Ataxia mimic those of being drunk, such as slurred speech, stumbling, falling, and Read More.. Niemann-Pick disease (NP-C) is a lysosomal storage disease in which impaired intracellular lipid transport leads to accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids in various neurovisceral tissues. It is an autosomal recessive disorder, caused by mutations in the NPC1 or NPC2 genes. The clinical spectrum is grouped by the age of onset and onset of neurological manifestation: pre/perinatal. Rare is Good, Until it's Your Disease. Lisa , Mucous membrane pemphigoid, United States, March 16, 2021. Rare. Like one-in-a-million rare.When you're talking about winning a mega-lottery, one-in-a-million feels winnable. But then again, when you're talking about a lot of millions in exchange for a two-do..