Denervated muscle electrical stimulation

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Get Top Products With Fast And Free Shipping For Many Items On eBay. Looking For Great Deals On Top Products? From Everything To The Very Thing. All On eBay Evidence accumulated from animal studies has indicated that direct electrical stimulation of denervated muscles can to a large extent substitute for innervation and preserve or restore the normal properties of the muscles After a series of initial examinations they underwent an electrical stimulation program for their denervated lower limb muscles. Some of the patients have already follow up examinations. A marked increase of muscle mass and quality was observed, the trophic situation of the denervated lower limbs had improved obviously Electrical stimulation and denervated muscles after spinal cord injury Spinal cord injury (SCI) population with injury below T10 or injury to the cauda equina region is characterized by denervated muscles, extensive muscle atrophy, infiltration of intramuscular fat and formation of fibrous tissue

Background: This was a multicenter, double-blind, randomized clinical trial to investigate the efficacy of electrical stimulation of denervated muscle (ESDM) on recovery of patients with peripheral nerve injuries Electrical stimulation (ES)-induced muscle contraction has multiple effects; however, mechano-responsiveness of bone tissue declines with age Electrical stimulation of denervated muscle Electrical stimulation can be used to stimulate so-called denervated muscle as well as innervated. This necessitates quite different stimulation approaches. In this article we discuss how denervation can result from damage to peripheral nerves and how and why electrical stimulation is used CONCLUSION: The electric stimulation can protect muscle histology, electrophysiology and enzymic histochemistry of denervated skeletal muscle from the degeneration. The electric stimulation is an effective method to prevent and treat muscle atrophy

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  1. In summary, LPWS is a novel stimulation technique for denervated muscles in humans with SCI. Successful studies on LPWS of denervated muscles will help in translating this stimulation technique to the clinical level as a rehabilitation intervention after SCI
  2. resulted in a decrease in fiber diameter. Denervated soleus muscles were electrically stimulated to contract over a four-week period at a frequency normally received by slow contracting muscles. Electrical stimulation caused the stain intensity of histochemical reactions for oxidative enzymes to appear to b
  3. ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF DENERVATED MUSCLE Plasticity of denervated muscles. Many studies (3,15,16,25,42,44,46,51,55,62) have demonstrated that the metabolic and contractile properties of denervated muscles can be influenced by their pattern of activity
  4. Long-term electrical stimulation restores normal extrajunctional membrane properties in denervated slow and fast muscles in the absence of intramuscular motor axons and, therefore, in the absence of putative neurotrophic factors. Stimulation also causes a marked, but usually incomplete, recovery of muscle size and force output
  5. In this European project it was shown that electrical stimulation of denervated muscles in spinal cord injuries (SCI) increased muscle mass and improved the trophic situation of the lower extremities. Furthermore, structural altered muscle into fat- and connective tissue could be restored into contractile muscle tissue by stimulation
  6. Electrical stimulation of the muscle causes increase venous and lymphatic return, increase blood velocity and flow, alter cell membrane permeability, these causes reduction of edema. The treatment is most effective if the current is applied by the method, termed faradism under pressure Faradism under pressure is stimulation of the muscle tha

Abstract: To evaluate the effects of electrical stimulation on denervated muscles in spinal cord injured humans, the EU Project RISE was started in 2001. The aims of this project are: to design and build sufficient stimulators; to develop stimulation protocols by means of mathematical models, animal experiments, and practice in humans with denervated lower limbs; to develop examination methods. And also, electrical stimulation is the most direct method suggested for minimizing muscle atrophy during the denervation period.10-12 Caierão et al.,13reported a decrease in connective tissue content and an increase in muscle fiber area by using an electrical stimulation protocol in denervated muscle

Electrical stimulation of denervated muscle: is it worthwhile

also called electrical muscle stimulator (EMS) used to stimulate muscle directly (post sugery, or in denervated muscle) creates muscle contraction. microcurrent electrical nerve stimulators (MENS) not common used for tissue healing intensity is too small to excite peripheral nerve Functional electrical stimulation (ES) is one treatment op- tion for denervated muscles to preserve or restore muscle strength and reduce or prevent muscle atrophy due to de- nervation and disuse [1, 2]. To our knowledge, only few human studies are dealing with this topic [9-13] Functional electrical stimulation (ES) is one treatment option for denervated muscles to preserve or restore muscle strength and reduce or prevent muscle atrophy due to denervation and disuse [ 1, 2 ]. To our knowledge, only few human studies are dealing with this topic [ 9 - 13 ]

Galvanic current

Functional Electrical Stimulation of Denervated Muscles: Basic Issues. Stanley Salmons. Corresponding Author. Muscle Research Group, Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Biology University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK Electrical muscle stimulation (ES) has been utilized as a therapeutic intervention and a functional substitute for voluntary muscle contraction in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) [ 7 ] and long-standing denervation. Some clinical studies have found that direct ES to denervated muscles increases muscle mass and average fiber diameter [ 8, Electrical stimulation and denervated muscles after spinal cord injury Subhalakshmi Chandrasekaran 1, John Davis 1, Ines Bersch 2, Gary Goldberg 3, Ashraf S Gorgey MPT, PhD 4 1 Spinal Cord Injury and Disorders, Hunter Holmes McGuire VA Medical Center, Richmond, VA, USA 2 Swiss Paraplegic Centre, Nottwil, Switzerland; Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Orthopedics at the University. This is the project of electical of stimulator of denervated muscle. Present : Aj.Kanokthip Sawangjaithum Section: 1 Major: Physical Therapy MF Phase 3: Burst Stimulation for Long-Term Spinal-Motor Neuron-Denervated Muscles. Pulse shortened to 40 mS (40,000 uS), frequency increased to 20 Hz, for 2 seconds on 2 seconds off, 3-5 min stimulation with 1 min rest 3-5 times a session, twice a day, 5 days per week. Phase 4: Force/Endurance Stimulation. After 9-12 months of.

Abstract: Prior clinical work showed that electrical stimulation therapy with exponential current is able to slow down atrophy and maintain the muscle during nonpermanent flaccid paralysis. However, exponential currents are not sufficient for long‐term therapy of denervated degenerated muscles (DDMs) An impaired muscle loses approx. two-thirds of its volume and weight in about 8 to 10 weeks. Electrical stimulation can be used to stimulate denervated muscles and to cause contractions that prevent or slow down atrophy as well as possibly supporting the regeneration of peripheral nerves

The electrical stimulation in denervated and partial patient.Present to AJ. Kanokthip Sawangjaithum submitted byJarawee Rattanasiriwongwut 5531803006Naree.. AB - To evaluate the effects of electrical stimulation on denervated muscles in spinal cord injured humans, the EU Project RISE was started in 2001. The aims of this project are: to design and build sufficient stimulators; to develop stimulation protocols by means of mathematical models, animal experiments, and practice in humans with. The study was conducted to determine if daily electrical stimulation of denervated muscle, initiated the day following crush denervation and continued for 8 weeks (i.e., 5 weeks after presumptive reinnervation), would influence denervation-associated alterations in muscle size and in situ contractile properties of rat gastrocnemius. A stimulation protocol of brief, strong, isometric. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a technique that uses low-energy electrical pulses to artificially generate body movements in individuals who have been paralyzed due to injury to the central nervous system.More specifically, FES can be used to generate muscle contraction in otherwise paralyzed limbs to produce functions such as grasping, walking, bladder voiding and standing

Massage and passive movements were found to promote circulation in normal muscle, and therefore it was thought that similar treatment would benefit denervated muscle. At the present time, the generally accepted methods of treatment for denervated muscles are either massage or electrical stimulation. Indeed, until the investigations of Langley Electrical Stimulation of Denervated Muscles After Spinal Cord Injury The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government

Electrical stimulation of a denervated muscle promotes selective re-innervation by native over foreign motoneurons. J Neurophysiol 87: 2195-2199, 2002; 10.1152/jn.00451.2001. The effect of electrical stimulation of the denervated posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscle on its subsequent reinnervation was explored in the canine. Eigh DENERVATED MUSCLE UNDERGOING ELECTRICAL STIMULATION: DEVELOPMENT OF MONITORING TECHNIQUES BASED ON MEDICAL IMAGE MODELLING Paolo Gargiulo(a) (b), Thomas Mandl (c), Egill A. Friðgeirsson (a) (b), Ilaria Bagnaro(d), Thordur Helgason(a) (b), Páll Ingvarsson(e), Marcello Bracale(d), Winfried Mayr(f), Ugo Carraro(g), Helmut Kern (h) (a) Department of Development and Consultancy HUT, University.

Electrical stimulation of denervated muscles: first

Tamaki H, Tomori K, Yotani K, Ogita F, Sugawara K, Kirimoto H, Onishi H, Yamamoto N, Kasuga N (2014) Electrical stimulation of denervated rat skeletal muscle retards trabecular bone loss in early stages of disuse musculoskeletal atrophy. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 14:220-228. CAS PubMed Google Scholar 24 long-term denervated muscle.48 The English abstract is provided in the following paragraph. Functional Electrical Stimulation on Paraplegic Patients. We report on clinical and physiological effects of 8 months Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) of quadriceps femoris muscle on 16 paraplegic patients This research is to study the electrical stimulation characteristics of orbicularis oculi muscle and the characteristics of the mechanical contraction. We observed the stimulus current diffusion regularity and its relationship with mechanical contraction in the orbicularis oculi muscle using an electrode gathering line. Under different stimulus intensities of 2 or 4 mA, the closer the.

Electrical stimulation and denervated muscles after spinal

  1. To overcome the degenerative changes and produce a desirable contraction of a selected muscle/muscle groups (eg. peroneals), a slow-rising electrical pulse is required (Low & Reed, 2000). This slow rising pulse, also known as selective triangular or accommodation pulses, allows the stimulation to accumulate in the denervated muscle while.
  2. imize denervation atrophy of the muscle parenchyma. A properl
  3. skin via an electrical potential (like charges are repelled). Most commonly used to suppress inflammation and pain though has other potential uses. Interrupted Direct Current IDC Direct stimulation of denervated muscle : Electrical stimulation does not bring about reinnervation, but is thought to maintain the contractile proteins in th
  4. Goal. Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS) stimulation of denervated muscle to maintain viability. Electrical Stimulation for Tissue Repair (ESTR) stimulation for edema reduction, increased circulation, and wound management. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) stimulation of innervated muscle to restore function including muscle strength.

Efficacy of electrical stimulation of denervated muscle: A

Low-Frequency Electrical Stimulation of Denervated

Electrical stimulation of the denervated muscles of adult or old rats maintained the mean fiber CSA at 91% of the value for control muscles of adult rats . Thus, the stimulation of denervated muscles in old rats not only attenuated the decrease related to denervation, but eliminated the decrease in mean fiber CSA related to old age Functional electrical stimulation (ES) is one treatment option for denervated muscles to preserve or restore muscle strength and reduce or prevent muscle atrophy due to denervation and disuse [1, 2]. To our knowledge, only few human studies are dealing with this topic [ 9 - 13 ]

Optimizing stimulation parameters in functional electrical

In short value of electrical stimulation for denervated muscle is not proven and its application to gain muscle power what may be small benefits are obtain but not justified. If some of the motor units (motor end plate + motor nerve + muscle fibers) are intact galvanic current is the choice of treatment Electrical stimulation of the muscle fibers that retain a nerve supply (in the partially denervated muscle) may simulate voluntary muscle overuse and contribute to the suppression of the chemical mediators required for the reinnervation of the denervated fibers

In the typical scenario where the muscle is innervated by a motor nerve, NMES is the appropriate terminology, and when a muscle is denervated and requires direct muscle fiber activation through electrical stimulation, the term EMS is used stimulation. Also in denervated edl muscles stimulation removes extrajunctional ACh sensitivity and restore normal RMPs (not shown). Fig. 2 shows, first, that denervation causes a striking reduction in force of soleus muscles; second, that electrical stimulation either maintains or restores the force output to nearly normal values

Electrical stimulation of denervated muscle — Anatomical

What is Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS)? use of electrical currents to produce muscle contractions in in denervated muscle. What are some benefits of using E-Stim for muscle contraction? - strenghten - slow/prevent atrophy - reduce spasticity - help restore functio Muscle Stimulator: Muscle Stimulator also known as Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) or neuromuscular electrical stimulation, is the elicitation of muscle contraction using electric impulses. An EMS machine may be effective in the initial phase of muscle strengthening. The electrical current may additionally assist pain relief, like a TENS unit machine, but pain relief is not [ An important aspect to be observed by researchers and therapists while assessing the effects of ES on the denervated muscle is to consider, besides the effectiveness of treatment on muscle atrophy, the safety of electrical stimulation on the reinnervation process The stimulus paradigm was then used to investigate muscle that was denervated and immediately repaired. Ideally, immediate nerve repair following nerve injuries produces the best outcome. One month of electrical muscle stimulation following nerve repair enhanced this outcome through significant increases in muscle weight and force

[Effect of electric stimulation on denervated skeletal

OVERVIEW. Electrical stimulation (ES) uses alternating or direct current to accomplish various therapeutic aims including (1) to increase strength and endurance of innervated muscle (NMES), (2) to modulate pain (TENS), (3) to reduce edema (HVPC) and enhance healing, and (4) to stimulate denervated muscle (DC) A properly administered program of selective electrical stimulation of denervated muscle may appreciably delay denervation atrophy. Current forms having slowly increasing intensities (exponentially progressive currents) are capable of selective stimulation of denervated muscle while awarding the stimulation of both the innervated muscles and. CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Spinal-cord injury (SCI) causes a rapid loss in both muscle mass and contractile force, and the process is especially severe when the injury involves spinal motoneurons. By using an adapted stimulation protocol with increased number of stimuli per day, thus increasing the amount of the muscle activity, we were able to.

It does not work on muscles that are denervated muscle; to cause the same effect a short pulse duration would be required. When applying faradic stimulation, the stimulation of the sensory nerve can result in the patient experiencing a pricking sensation due to the short duration of the pulse Neuromuscular electrical stimulation is often used in conjunction with physical therapy. For the purpose of rehabilitation, neuromuscular electrical stimulation is typically used in conjunction with other methods of physical therapy.The intent of is to stimulate the nerves in the muscle with electrical impulses, since they are a natural part of the normal communication between the brain and. functional electrical stimulation cycle which uses surface electrodes and specific parameters designed to stimulate alpha motor neurons *The RT300 was made possible Client has lower motor neuron damage or denervated muscle (ie. cauda equina, peripheral neuropathies electrical stimulation before and after two years of hbFES. Panel (A) shows the single twitch characteristics of the electrical stimulation test at th e enrolment of SCI patients in the EU RISE Project. Normal innervated muscles respond at 1.0 ms twitch stimulation. Denervated muscles tested days o

Muscular atrophy due to denervation can be substantially reversed by direct electrical stimulation. Some muscle properties are, however, resistant to change. Using a rabbit model of established denervation atrophy, we investigated whether the extent of restoration would vary with the stimulation protocol. Five patterns, delivering 24,000-480,000 impulses/day, were applied for 6 or 10 weeks. Electrical stimulation • Application of therapeutic electrical current devices to stimulate excitable tissues, with the aim of producing physiological reaction for therapeutic benefits. Electrical current is a flow of charged particles ACRONYM Explanation EMS Electrical muscle stimulation ESTR Electrical stimulation for tissue repai If nothing happens, chances are you have denervated muscles which will not respond to FES, EMS, NMES or TENS. The good news is there is still a solution to maintain muscle mass with the Den2X stimulator using more powerful electrical waveforms to trigger skeletal muscle CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates that percutaneous electric stimulation could be used to strengthen partially denervated muscle and to affect function. However, gains in strength may not be maintained once treatment is withdrawn DOI: 10.1111/J.1525-1594.2005.29034.X Corpus ID: 36954015. Functional electrical stimulation of denervated muscles: basic issues. @article{Salmons2005FunctionalES, title={Functional electrical stimulation of denervated muscles: basic issues.}, author={S. Salmons and Z. Ashley and H. Sutherland and M. Russold and F. Li and J. Jarvis}, journal={Artificial organs}, year={2005}, volume={29 3.

Electrical stimulation increased valosin-containing protein (VCP) expression and decreased cleaved caspase-12 expression in denervated muscles. These results indicated that electrical stimulation to denervated muscle suppresses ER-specific apoptosis by enhancing VCP expression The denervated muscle showed loss of weight, a marked decrease in diameter of type 1 fibers and a small increase in diameter of type 2 fibers. Electrical stimulation suppressed weight loss of the denervated muscles. Electrical stimulation with high frequency cycle, like phasic motoneuron discharges, significantly suppressed the increase in. DC (Direct Current) Stimulation. DC or direct current stimulation is a form of galvanic electric stimulation that is used to stimulate any muscle that is denervated or lacking proper nerve function. Causes of muscle denervation include trauma or injury, surgery, nerve entrapment, infections, and autoimmune disorders Muscle Stimulation o Stimulation of motor nerves Not direct stimulation of muscle tissue o Nerve fibers require shorter duration to excite o Few of the electrical stimulator s in use today can stimulate muscle tissue directly o To get more of a muscle/motor response, want to put it over its motor component o Person must have an intact motor. (2018). In complete SCI patients, long-term functional electrical stimulation of permanent denervated muscles increases epidermis thickness. Neurological Research: Vol. 40, No. 4, pp. 277-282

• Electric current can stimulate excitable tissue in body. • Intermittent current are used • Current duration range used:(0.01ms-3sec) • Short duration less than 10 ms is faradic type-used for stimulation of normal muscle • Long duration more than10ms is called interrupted galvanic type -used for stimulation of denervated muscles 28. Russo, T. L. et al. Stretching and electrical stimulation reduce the accumulation of MyoD, myostatin and atrogin-1 in denervated rat skeletal muscle. J. Muscle Title: Functional Electrical Stimulation of Denervated Muscles: An Experimental Evaluation Created Date: 8/5/2008 4:38:40 P

Acupuncture plus low-frequency electrical stimulation (Acu

The electrical charge slowly spreads through the muscle with a diminished rate of contraction compared with innervated muscle (Low & Reed, 2000). Studies have shown that using electrical stimulation to produce isometric contractions of denervated muscle can retard the atrophy process Electrical stimulation of proximal nerve stumps prior to repair accelerates nerve outgrowth across the injury site 3-7 but may still leave distal muscles denervated for long periods resulting in their atrophy. Others have shown that electrical stimulation of muscle reverses or diminishes muscle atroph HTA-Ca: Electrical Stimulation for the Upper Limb 4/2/2016 Charles Costello, PT, PhD, CHT 2 Therapeutic Indications for Electrical Stimulation Pain Control Strengthen Weak Muscles Retard Muscle Atrophy Innervated Denervated Facilitation / Reeducation muscle functio Electrical stimulation of denervated muscles immediately after nerve transection and surgical repair also accelerates muscle reinnervation but, at this time, how the Electrical Stimulation Enhances PNS Regeneration 297. Schwann cells were able to myelinate the regenerated axon

FES is an electrical stimulatory device, so the general contraindications and precautions when apply such a device should not be neglected. The table below presents a general and encompassing list for the use electrical stimulatory devices: Cakmak, A. (2004). Electrical stimulation of denervated muscles. Disability and Rehabilitation 26 (7. The aim of the study is to investigate whether there is an effect of electrical stimulation on the denervated gluteus muscle (buttocks) in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury. The expected outcome is an increase in muscle volume and a better pressure distribution during sitting Relaxation of denervated muscle fibers is known to contribute to muscle atrophy. 19 Overwork of intact motor units: Electrical stimulation did not induce hypertrophy of the normal muscle as demonstrated by either an increase in the muscle weight (fig 1) or fiber area Home-Based Functional Electrical Stimulation Rescues Permanently Denervated Muscles in Paraplegic Patients With Complete Lower Motor Neuron Lesion 13 Pages Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 201 Portable stimulator for direct electrical stimulation of denervated muscles in laboratory animals A. Sebille, P. Fontanges, J. Legagneux*, J.C. Mira f and M. Pecot-Dechavassine$ Laboratoire de Physiologie, Faculte de Medecine Saint Antoine, 27 Rue Chaligny, 75571 Paris Cedex 12, France; *Laboratoire de Microchirurgie, Amphitheatre d'Anatomie des Hopitaux de Paris, 17 Rue du Fer a Moulin, Paris.

Stimulation of Denervated Muscles In situations where the nerve supply of the muscle is permanently lost (i.e., denervation), it is still possible to directly stimulate the muscular tissue. Compared to conventional nerve stimulation, this requires much higher energy delivered per stimulation pulse and, consequently, additional safety measures Brief Electrical Nerve Stimulation Accelerates the Regeneration of Injured Peripheral Nerves The basis for applying electrical stimulus to a peripheral nerve to promote nerve regeneration derives first from the studies of Hoffman.16 These studies demonstrated acceler-ated axon sprouting in partially denervated muscle in response to ES Electrical stimulation based on chronaxie could regulate myoD gene expression in denervated muscle fibers. 20 muscle contractions, induced by electrical stimulation using surface electrodes and applied on alternate days based on muscle excitability, similar to protocols used in human clinical rehabilitation, were able to reduce the accumulation. Iontophoresis, & stimulation of denervated muscle (EMS), -TENS, NMES, FES ___-•time for current to go from zero to peak amplitude and then to go from peak amplitude back down to zero

(PDF) Effects of electrical stimulation and stretching on

Electrical stimulation of denervated muscle prevents

Home-based Functional Electrical Stimulation for long-term denervated human... Home-based Functional Electrical Stimulation for long-term denervated human muscle: History, basics, results and perspectives of the Vienna Rehabilitation Strategy. Use it or lose it: tonic activity of slow motoneurons promotes their survival.. Recent experimental and clinical work gives strong evidence that functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a powerful tool for regeneration, functional restoration and maintenance of denervated musculature, a fact that for various reasons was not recognized in the past. On reason was the lack of associated technology that in comparison to existing FES equipment for nerve stimulation has to. Electrical Stimulation Related Terms Intensity (Magnitude) of Current It is the rate of an (e-) flow through a conductor from cathode (-) to anode (+ ), per second. Measured in Ampere or (mA= 1/1,000 ampere) or (μA; 1/1,000,000 ampere) 1 amp = 6.25 x 1018 e-/ sec Resistance: is a quantitative degree of opposition to the flo Although all denervated muscles were degenerated, electrical stimulation was used to prevent muscular atrophy. Conclusions This study indicates that electrical stimulation of the PCA muscle synchronized with inspiration could restore the abduction of a paralyzed vocal cord and prevent the denervated muscles from atrophying Physics Behind Electrical Stimulation. Electricity Defined. Electricity is the force created by an imbalance in the number of electrons at two points. -Negative pole an area of high electron concentration. -Positive pole an area of low electron concentration. When talking about electrical stimulation of nerves, the cathode is usually is the.

Electrical stimulation of denervated muscle: is it

Optimizing stimulation parameters in functional electrical stimulation of denervated muscles: a cross-sectional study 7 0 One hour 20 Hz electrical stimulation (ES) accelerates recovery of muscle contraction and increases the number of regenerating motor axons that reinnervate muscle after reinnervation of a 3 month chronically denervated muscle. Isometric contractile forces of the gastrocnemius muscle and motor units (MUs) in response to single and tetanic. Eleven paraplegics with documented denervation atrophy of their quadriceps muscles were examined for six months to determine the effect of wide pulse width (25 milliseconds) electrical stimulation on the contraction of denervated muscle. Stimulation was conducted at a frequency of 10 Hertz with biphasic sine wave impulses Electrical stimulation of denervated EDL muscles of rats: Maintenance of mass, contractile properties and recovery following grafting Read Effects of chronic electrical stimulation on long-term denervated muscles of the rabbit hind limb, Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips

The Response of Denervated Muscle to Long-Term Electrical

CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Recent experimental and clinical work gives strong evidence that functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a powerful tool for regeneration, functional restoration and maintenance of denervated musculature, a fact that for various reasons was not recognized in the past Electrical stimulation of denervated muscles increases size of the myofibres, maintains sarcomeres preventing/reversing apoptosis/necrosis and secondary degeneration of the long-term denervated tissue. In this work we quantify myosin content in long-term permanent denervated muscles without and with FES