An image memory divides the cross sectional image into

The _____ divides the image into pixels, such as a matrix of 512 × 384. memory. the procedure for entering the echo information required for display of the 2D cross-sectional image into a digital memory is as follows: •All the information necessary for displaying this cross-sectional image now is stored in the memory 2 Background and Prior Work. In medical imaging, the term atlas usually refers to a (probabilistic) model of a population of images, with the parameters learned from a training data set [5,20].In its simplest form, an atlas is a mean intensity image, which we call a template [2,4,15,21].Yet, richer statistics, such as intensity variance or segmentation label counts, can also be included in the. IVUS technology generally divides into those based on mechanically scanned single transducer element and those comprising a solid-state circumferential array . IVUS provides cross-sectional vessel anatomic structural information that is not obtained using only X-Ray angiography - which gathers information from a projection across the vessel. A digital bit image memory system especially adapted for use in a newspaper-type composition and display system. At least one digital storage location is provided for each elemental display position. The memory system is formed with plural rows and columns of random access memory devices which are arranged and continually addressed to simultaneously refresh the display and maintain the stored. Google Images. The most comprehensive image search on the web

In this method I am splitting a master image into multiple image but the code generating first image in very low quality. But it is generating full black images for remaining height. public static Bitmap[] Split(byte[] ByteImage) { // MasterImage: there is no problem in master image. it is saving it in good quality - hindbrain and forebrain later divide into. cerebrospinal fluid computed tomography (CT) - x-rays taken at diff angles, processed by computer to cross-sectional slice images of tissue. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) - radioactive sugar injected and absorbed into body 3.2 Memory. 74 terms. sevdasaadat. 4.2 Problem Solving and. It is also known as Y-X plane or Frontal planes; the coronal plane divides the body into ventral (front) and dorsal (back) portions.This plane also gives a clear image of the posterior and anterior portions of the body. The coronal planes intersect the median plane at a 90-degree angle and show the anatomical body parts into front and back halves The selected open-source images dataset was divided into 60% training, 20% validation, and 20% testing. The model is fine-tuned on the batch size of 32 and 50 epochs. Figure 5 shows accuracy, loss, precision, and recall on training, validation, and testing data

physics ch 4 (Part 2) Flashcards Quizle

  1. Medical imaging is the procedure used to attain images of the body parts for medical uses in order to identify or study diseases. There are millions of imaging procedures done every week worldwide. Medical imaging is developing rapidly due to developments in image processing techniques including image recognition, analysis, and enhancement. Image processing increases the percentage and amount.
  2. Equation for computation of velocity, V = R to the two-thirds power times S to the one-half power all divided by n. N is manning's coefficient, which is a roughness coefficient, R is the hydraulic radius, and S is the energy slope, which is approximated by the water surface slope for steady, uniform flow used here
  3. ation unit that deter
  4. The micro-CT image shown in Figure 1 has, approximately, 2400 x 2400 x 2800 voxels, in x, y, and z directions, respectively. This is equal to over 30 GB of data on memory for the 16-bit gray-scale image. Analyzing a dataset of this size on a workstation can be challenging, especially if the amount of available memory is less than 5 times the.
  5. As a consequence, image artifacts result. The most problematic physiologic motions include blood flow, respiratory motion, cardiac motion, and gross movements of the body. Common motion artifacts are image blurring and ghost (or misregistration) as shown in Fig 3.3. Fig 3.3 Cross-sectional image of the lower abdomen with motion artifacts [2]
  6. Our workflow consists of two parts (Fig. 2): (1) a CNN trained with an augmented set of patches extracted from the training cross-sectional images, (2) the trained model is used to provide the segmentation of an image considerably larger than the size of the patches with which it was trained.To do this, the image is broken down into patches, from which predictions are generated for each pixel

The two visual pathways continue into the medial temporal lobe memory system, in which the LEC conveys ventral-pathway input . to the hippocampus and the MEC conveys dorsal-pathway input. 7-10 (Box 1). Episodic memory, defined as explicit memory of specific items or events tied to a specific spatiotemporal context, is funda As seen from Fig. 1, the machine learning classifier takes the feature vector as input and the output is the object class while the deep learning classifier takes in the image and the output is the object class.It may be noted that theoretically deep learning can be said to be an enhancement of conventional artificial neural networks (ANN) as it consists of more layers than ANN []

The representational account of memory envisages perception and memory to be on a continuum rather than in discretely divided brain systems [Bussey, T. J., & Saksida, L. M. Memory, perception, and the ventral visual-perirhinal-hippocampal stream: Thinking outside of the boxes. Hippocampus, 17, 898-908, 2007]. We tested this account using a. Compared to 2D images, 3D medical images are normally volumetric, posting challenges to balance between efficiency (e.g., CPU time) and effectiveness (e.g. sensitivity) in segmentation. An effective traditional CNN configuration for 3D images requires a consideration for the spatial features of the image, which challenges the configuration of. The cross-sectional images that set the MF within 8 mm of the center of the reconstruction range (40 images × 0.2 mm) were utilized in this study. The size of the reconstructed images was based on the MF; the width was twice the mean width of the mandibular bone from the cross-sectional image (Fig. 2 c), and the height was fixed at 28 mm

Background Evidence from previous studies suggests that bilingualism contributes to cognitive reserve because bilinguals manifest the first symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) up to 5 years later than monolinguals. Other cross-sectional studies demonstrate that bilinguals show greater amounts of brain atrophy and hypometabolism than monolinguals, despite sharing the same diagnosis and. The memory impairments in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can be classified into encoding (EF) and retrieval (RF) failure, which can be affected by underlying pathomechanism. We explored the differences structurally and functionally. We compared quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) power spectra and connectivity between 87 MCI patients with EF and 78 MCI with RF using iSyncBrain. Standard image High-resolution image To further verify the conduction mechanisms, the I-V curves are measured at different temperatures of 300-400 K. As observed in figure 11(b), the current-voltage relation can be divided into two distinct power-law regions (I ∝ V n) [72-75]. At RT in the low-voltage region, the conduction mechanism is.

Discovering Modes of an Image Population through Mixture

Ultrasound in Radiology: from Anatomic, Functional

US4069511A - Digital bit image memory system - Google Patent

  1. ImageNet is a well-known public image database put together for training models on tasks like object classification, detection, and segmentation, and it consists of over 14 million images. Think about how long it would take to load all of them into memory for training, in batches, perhaps hundreds or thousands of times
  2. Convert each PDF page into a JPG or extract all images contained in a PDF. Upload your file and transform it. Select PDF files. Upload from computer. or drop PDFs here. PDF to JPG options. Page to JPG . Every page of this PDF will be converted into a JPG file. -JPG will.
  3. The brain is the central part of the nervous system. It is an intriguing organ, that has been studied right from the time it develops in the fetus. The human brain weighs about 1.5 kg in adults. The cerebrum, which forms the bulk of this organ, is divided into two hemispheres, the right hemisphere and the left hemisphere
  4. J = 휎 E (18.5) 휌 = RA l 휌 = VA Il 휎 =1 휌 in which J is the current density—the current per unit of specimen area I / A —and E is the elec-tric field intensity, or the voltage difference between two points divided by the distance sep-arating them—that is, (18.6) E= V l 1 The SI units for electrical conductivity are siemens per meter (S/m), in which 1 S/m = 1 (Ω · m) −1

To summarize, memory is fundamentally a vital biological function crucial for our survival. The progress that has been made in the past few decades elucidating the factors affecting memory and forgetfulness has provided useful insight into how memories might be enhanced [].Nevertheless, more studies are needed to better understand the relationship between memory performance and certain mental. Episodic memory is a part of the explicit long-term memory responsible for storing information about events (i.e. episodes) that we have experienced in our lives.. It involves conscious thought and is declarative. An example would be a memory of our 1st day at school. The knowledge that we hold in episodic memory focuses on knowing that something is the case (i.e. declarative)

Throughout its history, the field of neurosurgery has been revolutionized by improvements in imaging and visualization. From the development of the pneumoencephalogram, to the operating microscope, to cross sectional imaging with CT and later MRI, to stereotaxy and neuronavigation, the ability to visualize the pathology and surrounding neural structures has been the driving factor leading. In this cross-sectional study there was a significant inverse association between red meat intake and the onset age of RA, even when adjusting for sex, cigarette smoking, BMI, family history of. A CT scan is an X-ray procedure that combines many X-ray images with the aid of a computer to generate cross-sectional and three-dimensional images of internal organs and structures of the body. A CT scan is a low-risk procedure. Contrast material may be injected into a vein or the spinal fluid to enhance the scan

Google Image

  1. The MPRAGE image was spatially co-registered to the mean unwarped image and segmented into six tissue types, using the unified segmentation and normalization algorithm implemented in SPM12. The resulting forward deformation parameters were used to normalize unwarped EPIs into a standard stereotactic reference frame (Montreal Neurological.
  2. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful, non-invasive and non-contact image modality that can produce cross-sectional images of retinal structures [].OCT has been widely used to diagnose eye diseases, such as glaucoma, AMD, diabetic macular oedema (DME) and anaemia screening [].AMD can change the morphology of retinal tissue, as shown in Fig. 1b, and these abnormal changes can be.
  3. Cross-sectional areas of the outer red contour were used for calculating the cell size based on the actual resolution of the original images. Images used for measurements were taken under three randomly chosen visual fields of each brain section of three WT and three trappc9 KO mice with the same settings

c# - How To split a big image into smaller A4 size pieces

  1. a) The Schematic diagram of the EC-EYE. b,c) Optical image of EC-EYE. d) SEM image of the hemispherical PAM/NWs. e) Cross-sectional SEM images of NW. f) HRTEM image of a single-crystalline perovskite NW. g) Photograph of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) socket. h) The reconstructed image of EC-EYE (letter a) and its projection on the plane
  2. Dataset. The Lauraceae image dataset was employed to analyze the structural elements. The dataset contains nine species from six genera of the Lauraceae family, and is composed of 1019 cross-sectional optical micrographs, with each species present in more than 20 images (Table 1).The 8-bit grayscale images have a size of 900 × 900 pixels and a pixel resolution of 2.94 μm
  3. Depression is regarded as a major public health concern in our society. While living arrangements as a structural factor of social support may contribute to older adults' depression. Our study aims to investigate the association between living arrangements and depressive symptoms among older adults in the whole China, and to explore whether such influences differ by genders

1.1 Flashcards Quizle

  1. Animals were divided into two groups; one received a diet rich in extra virgin olive oil and the other did not. The olive oil was introduced at six months of age, before the mouse Alzheimer's had.
  2. ant force in the diagnosis of neurologic disease, more correlation with cross-sectional images or anatomic sections should have been used. This book is primarily of value to medical students, neurologists, and neurosurgeons who are preparing for board exa
  3. General practitioners (GPs) play a significant role in dementia care. However, the knowledge and attitudes of them towards dementia care are poorly characterized. The present study aimed to investigate GPs' knowledge, attitudes and skills of dementia care in primary health settings in Beijing. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 27 community health service centers (CHSCs) in Beijing
  4. Introduction. Many cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have reported deleterious effects of television (TV) viewing on the cognitive abilities, attention, behaviors, and academic performance of children (Johnson et al. 2002, 2007; Christakis et al. 2004).Longer TV viewing was associated with lower intelligence quotient (IQ) and reading grades in a cross-sectional study (Ridley-Johnson et.
  5. The researchers, led by Agnes S. Chan, Ph.D., gave the children verbal memory tests, to see how many words they recalled from a list, and a comparable visual memory test for images. Students with musical training recalled significantly more words than the untrained students, and they generally learned more words with each subsequent trial of three
  6. Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life. Originally concerned with infants and children, the field has expanded to include adolescence, adult development, aging, and the entire lifespan.Developmental psychologists aim to explain how thinking, feeling, and behaviors change throughout life
  7. College of Lake Count

The pixel-wise memory array is divided into upper and bottom parts in the unit, and the memory select circuit is also divided into two blocks in the same manner. Figure 3b shows the circuit diagram of the memory select circuit for 184 analog memories. The memory select circuit is composed of a combination of a 46-bit shift register and 4-bit. Grey matter (or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries.Grey matter is distinguished from white matter in that it contains numerous cell bodies and relatively few myelinated axons, while white matter contains. The development of amyloid imaging compounds has allowed in vivo imaging of amyloid deposition. In this study, we examined the spatial patterns of amyloid deposition throughout the brain using Pittsburgh Compound Blue ((11)C-PiB) positron emission tomography data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Stud Then we chose 256 A-scans in a B-scan (2D cross-sectional image) to obtain reasonable image quality. This meant 81,920 data samples comprised our B-scan. With 256 B-scans per volume scan, we had 20,971,520 samples per volume, and using 14-bit ADCs, each sample was two bytes Methamphetamine (MA) use has been shown to be associated with deficits in impulsivity, verbal learning, and working memory. Additionally, methamphetamine use disorder (MUD) is related to various brain changes, especially in adolescent users who might be more vulnerable to detrimental effects on brain development. However, little is known about the relationship between adolescent MA use and.

In the ThorImageOCT software, 3D volume datasets can be viewed as orthogonal cross-sectional planes (see below) and volume renderings. The Sectional View features cross-sectional images in all three orthogonal planes, independent of the orientation in which the data was acquired. The view can be rotated as well as zoomed in and out The pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus associated neurological disorders is still not well understood, yet is known to result in neurological declines despite combination anti-retroviral therapy. HIV-1 transgenic (Tg26) mice contain integrated non-infectious HIV-1 proviral DNA. We sought to assess the integrity of neurocognitive function and sensory systems in HIV-1 Tg26 mice using a. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) often presages the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accurate and early identification of cognitive impairment will substantially reduce the burden on the family and alleviate the costs for the whole society. There is a need for testing methods that are easy to perform even in a general practitioner's office, inexpensive and non-invasive, which could.

Anatomical Planes of Body - The Human Memor

Video: Automatic analysis of social media images to identify

Research in Medical Imaging Using Image Processing

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Cross-sectional analysis. Self-ordered pointing task. The total number of errors committed on the SOPT was submitted to a group (older adults vs. younger adults) by set size (nine-item and 16-item) repeated measures ANOVA. Again, the number of errors at each set size was divided by the total number of sheets administered for each set size An image is made up of a manifest and a list of layers. In simple terms, a tag points to a combination of these artifacts. You can have multiple tags for an image. Let's create a second tag for the image we built and take a look at its layers. To create a new tag for the image we built above, run the following command CNN are more frequently trained on 2D images. CNN can also be trained on 3D volume of images, generated by cross-sectional abdominal imaging like computed tomography (CT) or MRI, but is a larger burden computationally. Neural network architectures evolve rapidly and the choice of network or model to use vary depending on the intended tasks LTPS TFTs in the pixel can display a still image without driving the data line from the data driver. There are two types of memory used to memorize the data for displaying the still image in the pixel. One is the dynamic memory and the other is the static memory.15-17 In Fig. 3(a), it consists of a pixel gate switch (M1), digital memory. First, since our study was a cross-sectional study, the temporal association between WMH and CF remains unclear. Second, given the focus on outpatients presenting to the Memory Clinic, the sample size of subjects with CN was relatively small in this study, and the study results may not be readily generalizable to other populations

Participants' responses in the free-recall test were matched to the corresponding images by two independent coders. Participants' responses were randomly divided into two sets and each coder coded responses from one of the two sets. 35% of responses were randomly selected within each age group and were coded by both of the two coders This directory contains the code for SliceView, which provides the cross-sectional view.. Architecture. A volume is divided into a regular grid of 3-d chunks. Each chunk has voxel dimensions chunkDataSize (a 3-d vector of positive integers). All chunks have the same dimensions, except at the the upper bound of the volume in each dimension, where the chunks are allowed to be truncated to fit. MRI computer can be divided into central processing unit (CPU), consisting of instruction, interpretation and arithmetic unit plus fast access memory, and peripheral devices such as bulk data storage and input and output devices (including, via the interface, the spectrometer).The computer controls the RF pulses and gradients necessary to acquire data, and process the data to produce spectra. Recently, numerous attempts have been made toward realizing organic field-effect transistor (OFET) memory devices with a high data storage capacity for use in solid-state hard drives, thereby extending the applications of such devices beyond simple disposable electronics that do not require a high-capacity memory function [1-12].To this end, various types of OFET memory devices have been. Evidence from dopaminergic image and cerebral blood ow/metabolism images have shed light on symptomatol- cross-sectional observations, mild cognitive impairment was divided into caudate, anterior putamen, and poste-rior putamen, after incorporating age in the model, only.

Dissection and MR Imaging of Tracts. The method for dissection of the white matter tracts of the temporal stem and for delineation of these tracts on cross-sectional MR images is described in detail in a companion article on anatomic dissection tractography ().Briefly, formalin-treated brain specimens were imaged at 1.5 T in the sagittal plane by using a 3D T1-weighted spoiled gradient-echo. Learning and Memory. In cognitive psychology, there is one memory system, but it is normally divided into three functions for storage (Anderson, 2000): sensory, short-term (often called working), and long-term (often called permanent). Sensory Memory: The sensory memory retains an exact copy of what is seen or heard (visual and auditory) Twin BiCS Flash basically cuts a memory cell in half, for higher capacity. On the right are the prototype cell structure and cross-sectional observation image. the circular control gate is. Imaging a primary breast carcinoma of unknown status, processing and mapping the image's shapes and colors into feature vectors allow us, via the application of an ensemble-of-classifiers-based approach, to automatically predict a sample's axillary lymph node status, i.e. determine if the cancer has metastasized to nearby lymph nodes by only.

The fornix is a discrete white matter tract bundle that is critical for normal cognitive functioning. Although clearly visualized at magnetic resonance imaging, its involvement in pathologic processes is often overlooked. Certain disease processes show a predilection for involvement of the fornix; in other pathologic conditions, its involvement. Accelerated long-term forgetting is an early presymptomatic feature of autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease, which appears to pre-date other amnestic deficits and might underpin subjective memory complaints in Alzheimer's disease. Accelerated long-term forgetting testing might be useful in presymptomatic Alzheimer's disease trials Materials and Methods. This study was approved by the local ethics committee, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Data were analyzed from 25 patients (12 women, 13 men; age range, 19-52 years) with refractory epilepsy in whom temporal lobe surgery was performed after they underwent preoperative functional MR imaging, the Wada test, and neuropsychological testing

US20100061635A1 - Image processing apparatus, image

Digital divide centers on access to various dimensions of information and communication technology (ICT) including physical access, motivation, skills, and actual usage of digital technologies. This divide tends to be even wider in the context of developing countries. Yet, there is a lack of literature on the digital divide among the faculty who teach in higher education settings Study: View (positive, neutral, or negative) background image, then object image superimposed, and imagine a 'story' linking the two; Test (incidental): View and identify degraded image of (studied, new) object, then judge memory and confidence for visually intact image of same object, then recall valence and any details of background image. on cross sectional post mortem images (See Figure 1.2 from Duvernoy, 2005) and visualized on coronal MRI images (See Figure 1.3 from Malykhin et al., 2010). The CA subfield can be further divided into CA1-4 regions. This subfield is composed of pyramidal neurons with triangular soma in CA1 and ovoid soma in CA2-4. It is the largest subfiel BMI was categorised into four groups based on the Chinese reference standard: underweight (<18.5 kg/m 2), normal weight (18.5-24.0 kg/m 2), overweight (24.0-30.0 kg/m 2), and obese (≥30.0 kg/m 2). The NLR and MLR were calculated based on absolute peripheral neutrophil and monocyte counts, respectively, divided by lymphocyte counts in the. We included 91 105 participants with accelerometery data collected between 2013 and 2015 in our analyses. A one-quintile reduction in relative amplitude was associated with increased risk of lifetime major depressive disorder (odds ratio [OR] 1·06, 95% CI 1·04-1·08) and lifetime bipolar disorder (1·11, 1·03-1·20), as well as with greater mood instability (1·02, 1·01-1·04.

(PDF) Medical Image Processing Overview raghu ram

Images were analyzed by well‐trained physician researchers (C.X. and R.M.) using commercial software (Syngo.via VB30A, CaScoring, Siemens). The Agatston score was used to quantify CAC. 17 CAC scores were stratified into 4 common categories: 0, 1 to 99, 100 to 399, and ≥400 Presenteeism has attracted much attention in the research into mental health. However, how cognitive complaints and depressive symptoms affect presenteeism remains unknown. Therefore, this study examined the correlation between subjective cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms, and work limitations. We collected data from 477 adult workers in Japan

Kenhub provides extensive human anatomy learning resources spanning gross, clinical and cross-sectional anatomy, histology and medical imaging. Our dynamic, effective and guided approach to learning anatomy is brought to you via a full anatomy atlas, in-depth articles, videos and a variety of quizzes which can be tailored to your level The influence of injury severity on fornix cross-sectional area and hippocampal volume are summarized in Figure1, which demonstrates a significant decrease in fornix area and hippocampal volume with increasing injury severity, even when the factors of age and sex were controlled (Hotelling's T = 107.43; P <0.001). A Scheffe's post hoc analysis demonstrated a significant difference between all. (Left) Diffusion tensor image of a brain showing white matter fibre connections. The colors represent the direction of the connection (red for left-right, blue for superior-inferior, and green for anterior-posterior). (Middle) Zoomed image into the small region of interest (ROI), showing the diffusion tensor ellipses

Figure 4 shows examples of 2-D cross-sectional images [] and a 3-D volume image [], which were acquired by the OCT system equipped with the MEMS-based probe.The scan range was ∼ 8 × 8 mm 2.The number of A-scans samples was 1024, and the 2-D cross-sectional image was constructed using 256 A-scans, whereas the 3-D volume images comprised 256 cross-sectional images Successful development of anti-cholera measures requires accurate estimates of infection incidence. Reporting of cholera cases, however, typically relies on clinical assessment at the time of patient presentation and can be problematized by lack of access to health care and variable, nonspecific symptomatology. Combining a small number of serological markers with machine learning methods. All participants' FA data were then aligned into a common space using a non-linear registration tool (FMRIB) which uses a B-spline representation of the registration warp field.35 Further, the mean FA image was created and thinned to create a mean FA skeleton that represents the centres of all tracts common to the group. Each participant's. For the rating of deep WMLs (DWMLs), the brain was divided into six regions: frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, basal ganglia, and infratentorial. This is a slight modification of the original scale, which divides the basal ganglia and infratentorial regions into 5 and 4 different smaller subregions, respectively (19)

divided into low-Aβ (n=53), intermediate-Aβ (n=13) and high-Aβ In keeping with this idea, the cross-sectional effect of Aβ on cognition, if any, is small. Some studies showed a negative correlation between the presence of amyloid and Images were smoothed with a 4×4×4-mm Gaussian kernel with scatter correction Body dissatisfaction (i.e., a negative attitude towards one's own physical appearance) is assumed to originate from a perceived discrepancy between the actual physical appearance (i.e., actual body image) and the desired ideal state of the body (i.e., ideal body image) Body image distortions such as perception biases are assumed to be precursors of eating disorders (ED). This study aims to investigate body image perceptions and symptoms of disturbed eating behavior among a sample of 11-17 year-old students in Germany. A cross-sectional survey study was carried out among 1524 students of twelve secondary schools from all school types in North Rhine. Besides the importance of estimating the global economic impact of care for persons with dementia, there is an emerging need to identify the key factors associated with this cost. The aim of this study was to analyze associations between the cost of care in community-dwelling persons with dementia and caregiver characteristics from both the healthcare third party payer perspective and the.

Convolutional neural networks for segmenting xylem vessels

Our population was divided into 3 allele frequency groups: 10 Met homozygous carriers, 77 Val/Met carriers and 118 Val homozygous carriers, close to the Caucasian breakdown [].The allelic frequency was estimated based on the Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium using the khi 2 test. The distribution of genotypes in the sample did not differ from the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (p = 0.57) According to the weak annotations used for CNN training, these approaches can be divided into four main categories: bounding box [3,4,5,6], scribble [7, 8], points [9, 10] and image-level labels [11,12,13,14,15,16,17]. However, as far as we know, there are only a few weakly-supervised methods reported for the segmentation tasks in medical images Cognitive functioning depends in part on dopamine neurotransmission in the brain. Research implicates the dopamine D1 receptor family in cognitive functions linked to the prefrontal cortex, such as working memory. The dopamine D2 receptor family has also been linked to cognition, but it remains unclear to which cognitive functions it is specifically related

Deep learning approaches to biomedical image segmentation

Typically, women in South Africa (SA) are diagnosed with breast cancer when they self-present with symptoms to health facilities. The aim of this study was to determine the pathway that women follow to breast cancer care and factors associated with this journey. A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in the Western Cape Province, SA, between May 2015 and May 2016 Many healthcare workers were infected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) early in the epidemic posing a big challenge for epidemic control. Hence, this study aims to explore perceived infection routes, influencing factors, psychosocial changes, and management procedures for COVID-19 infected healthcare workers. This is a cross-sectional, single hospital-based study Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a worldwide issue associated with severe social and economic burden. Autologous nerve grafting, the gold standard treatment for peripheral nerve defects, still has a number of technical limitations. Tissue engineering technology is a novel therapeutic strategy, and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising seed cells for nerve tissue engineering

Representational Account of Memory: Insights from Aging

Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among wo men, accounting for 26% of cancer occurrence. It is the second leading cause of cancer death among all women and the leading cause of cancer death among women 20-59 years old [1, 2].Early detection, which is associated with an increased survival rate, is the primary method of containing deaths of this disease [3, 4] A cross-sectional correlational study was carried out with a convenience sample of 100 adult patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy at a university teaching hospital in Saudi Arabia. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and sociodemographic and clinical surveys were completed by participants Due to shortcomings in the design, no source-specific exposure-effect relations are as yet available describing the effects of noise on children's cognitive performance. This paper reports on a study investigating the effects of aircraft and road traffic noise exposure on the cognitive performance of primary schoolchildren in both the home and the school setting Alzheimer's disease (AD) and antecedent factors associated with AD were explored using amyloid imaging and unbiased measures of longitudinal atrophy in combination with reanalysis of previous metabolic and functional studies. In total, data from 764 participants were compared across five in vivo imaging methods. Convergence of effects was seen in posterior cortical regions, including posterior. However, past this age, substantial time-related decline was observed for the older adults, in line with cross-sectional data. Semantic memory performance tended to improve across time for the younger groups, but decline in old age, although the magnitude of this decline was less pronounced than for episodic memory